oop in c++ have 5

Step 1: Abstraction

Abstraction is the process of identifying the essential features of an object or a concept and ignoring the non-essential details. In the context of object-oriented programming (OOP) in C++, abstraction involves creating classes that encapsulate data and behavior. The class provides a blueprint for creating objects, and the details of how the class is implemented are hidden from the user.

Step 2: Encapsulation

Encapsulation is the process of bundling data and methods that operate on that data into a single unit, called a class. In C++, encapsulation is achieved through the use of access specifiers, such as public, private, and protected. The data members of a class are typically declared as private, which means they can only be accessed or modified by the methods (also known as member functions) of the class. This helps to protect the integrity of the data and ensures that it is manipulated in a controlled manner.

Step 3: Inheritance

Inheritance is the process of creating a new class (called the derived class) from an existing class (called the base class). The derived class inherits the properties and behaviors of the base class, and can also add new features or modify existing ones. In C++, inheritance is implemented using the "class" keyword, followed by the name of the derived class and a colon, followed by the access specifier (public, private, or protected) and the name of the base class.

Step 4: Polymorphism

Polymorphism is the ability of an object to take on many forms. In C++, polymorphism is achieved through the use of virtual functions. A virtual function is a member function of a base class that can be overridden by a derived class. When a virtual function is called on a base class pointer or reference, the appropriate derived class implementation is executed. This allows for more flexible and extensible code, as different derived classes can provide their own implementation of the same function.

Step 5: Data Abstraction

Data abstraction is the process of providing only the essential details and hiding the implementation details of a class. In C++, data abstraction is achieved through the use of classes and objects. The data members and member functions of a class are defined in the class declaration, while the implementation details are hidden from the user. This allows the user to interact with the object using its public interface, without needing to know how the object is implemented internally.